LES MOTS DE LIAISON (Link Words)

LES MOTS DE LIAISON (Link Words)

Les mots de liaisons permettent de structurer l’expression écrite et orale. Ils clarifient le lien entre les idées et sont le reflet d’une pensée structurée. Cependant, ils sont moins utilisés en anglais qu’en français, alors n’en abusez pas ! les plus courants restent and, but, so et or.

ORDONNER LES IDEES
  • First(ly), second(ly), finally /latly : premièrement, deuxièmement, finalement
  • to sum up, to summarise, in short : pour résumer, en bref
  • To conclude, in conclusion : pour conclure
AJOUTER UNE IDEE

Furthermore, moreover, in addition, besides: en outre, de plus, par ailleurs, qui plus est

Victoria is a great actress. Besides, she is a talented writer.

  • besides, in addition to (+N/+V-ing): en plus de I met only three people beside
  • also, too: également

I met Alison, and I met John too

EXPRIMER LE BUT
  • For sb(not) to do sth : pour que qqn fasse (ou ne fasse pas) qqc

The car stopped for me to cross the road.

  • to, in order(not) : pour (ne pas), afin de (ne pas), de façon à (ne pas),

I came to see you. /I came so as not to stay home.

  • So (that) : pour que, de façon que

We’ll modify your car so that it uses less oil.

EXPRIMER LA CAUSE
  • as : comme

As he was late, he decided to run.

  • because: parce que

I left safe because I knew he was there

  • because of, due to: a cause de, en raison de

He did not come because of/due to the snow.

  • For: car

She was very proud, for she had done well.

  • For (doing sth/having done sth): pour faire/avoir fait qqc

He was fired for arriving late

  • Since: puisque
FAIRE UNE COMPARAISON
  • As: comme

The pupil did as the teacher told him.

  • As if, as though: comme si

Live every day as if it were your last.

EXPRIMER UNE CONDITION
  • As long as, on condition that : tant que, à condition que

You can copy a CD as long as it’s for personal use.

  • If: si

If you keep trying, you will succeed.

  • Or else, otherwise, if+not: Sinon

Don’t drink before you drive, or else you might endanger many human lives

  • unless: à moins que

They won’t do their work unless I threaten them.

EXPRIMER LA CONSEQUENCE
  • Consequently, as a consequence, as a result: par conséquent

Ireland suffered a disastrous famine in the 1840s.

Consequently, many people fled abroad.

So: donc, alors

He was ill, so he didn’t come to the meeting.

  • that’s why : c’est pourquoi

She hates driving, that’s why she comes by bike.

  • there : par conséquent

He was away, therefore he did not see her.

EXPRIMER LE CONTRASTE ET L’OPPOSITION
  • On the contrary : au contraire

He did not pay. On the contrary, he asked for money.

  • Unlike: à la difference de

Unlike her colleagues, Gina is hardworking.

Contrary to: contrairement a

Contrary to popular belief, tomatoes are not vegetables.

Whereas, while: alors que, tandis que

She went to law school, whereas he studied maths.

FAIRE DES SUPPOSITIONS ET DES HYPOTHESES
  • If: si

If you help him, he will succeed

If you helped him, he would succeed

If you had helped him, he would have succeeded

  • Whether (…or): si

I’m unsure whether I locked the door (or not)

EXPRIMER LA CONCESSION OU LA RESTRICTION
  • although, though, while : bien que, quoique

Although/though she was poor, she refused his money.

Even if, even though, in spite of the fact that : même si, bien que, en dépit du fait que

He told her the truth, even though he knew she would be upset.

  • despite (= in spite of) : malgré, en dépit de

The airport stayed open in spite of/despite the snow

  • Anyway, anyhow : de toute façon

She told me not to call, but I’ll do it anyway.

  • however, still, (and) yet, nevertheless : pourtant, cependant, néanmoins

We were tired. However, we enjoyed the show.

  • though : pourtant ( souvent en fin de phrase)

He was angry. He did say thank you though.

  • Whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever : (peu importe)

Quoi, qui, ou, quand ; quoi, qui, ou (que)

He goes wherever he wants, whenever he wants to.

DONNER UN EXEMPLE
  • For example, for instance: par exemple

My family loves history. My brother, for instance, wants to become a genealogist.

SITUER DANS LE TEMPS
  • As : alors que, au moment où

As I entered the room, he laughed at me

  • As soon as:  dès que

I’ll call you as soon as I receive your letter.

For : depuis, pendant

It snowed for two hours yesterday.

  • meanwhile/(in the) meantime : pendant ce temps

The doctor will see you next week. In the meantime, I want you to stay in bed.

  • Since: depuis

It’s been 10 years since I first came here.

  • Until (till) : jusqu’à (ce que), (neg) avant

I’ll wait till Saturday. / I won’t be home until tonight.

  • When : quand

I’ll call you when I get there.

  • While: pendant que

Somebody called while you were away.

  • While: as long as tant que

While/ As long as there’s life, there’s hope.

  • yet : (interrogatif) déjà, (negatif) encore

In the car, the kids kept asking: « Mummy, are we there yet? » / My work is not finished yet, but I’m quite happy with it.

N.B.  Repérer les mots ayant plusieurs sens afin de les utiliser et de les reconnaitre plus facilement.

Parmi ces mots, notez ceux qui ont à la fois un sens temporel et un sens « logique »

Temporel
Logique
Since Depuis Puisque
Then Alors Alors
For Pendant/depuis Car
Yet Déjà Cependant
While Pendant que Alors que
As Alors que Comme
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